Wednesday, 26 October 2016

LEARNING THEORIES IN ART EDUCATION -Skinner Operant conditioning and Watsons Behaviorism-

Learning theories in art education was divided into two which are operant conditioning and classical conditioning. According to last week presenter, she had present about two learning theories from Skinner about operant conditioning and Watson’s behaviorism which is classical conditioning.
Operant conditioning by Skinner was based on Thorndike’s behavior theory which is law of effect. Law of effect in Thorndike’s means the change of behavior due to rewards and punishment which Skinner introduced his Skinner box which similar with Thorndike’s puzzle box but Skinner was used white rat as his experiment subject. From the experiment, Skinner identified three things in behavior which are neutral operant, reinforce and punisher but Skinner was highlight about the reinforcement as his key of his theory whereas reinforcement had used to achieve the desire for example, the cat must push the bell to get food, if he disobey the rule, he can’t get the food, so the cat must to push the bell to get his food.
Reinforcement was divide into two whereas positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement. Through my understanding, positive reinforcement is about the subject are willing to change themselves for example, one of a student should complete reading his book in one day but he doesn’t, so his friend advise him but he doesn’t care, then his friend ask him if they can finish them together and that student was agreed so the conclusion is, the student need someone to push him so he had desired to complete what he should do. While negative reinforcement  was start by punishment for  example, a student not pay attention in class so their teacher ask them to come in front and the teacher give a lecture, the teacher allowed them to sit if they well-behave. So here, the conclusion is, punishment is required to change the behavior of student.
While, the Watson behaviorism is a classical conditioning as well as Ivan Pavlov experiment which used dog as his subject but Watson has believe that behavior conditioning can be apply to children due to the same way of reaction between human and animals. Watson’s was used  a baby boy as his experimental subject which popular with named Little Albert, who was not shown his fear to the object he was shown but Watson had use a very loud noise that make him crying while show him the object that he had no fear before. The result is, Little Albert had fear to the object shown due to loud noise during the experiment before.  
The conclusion is, between operant conditioning and classical conditioning; I was agreed that operant conditioning was more effective to implement in behavior learning due to train student to behave themselves more than classical conditioning because of classical conditioning as well as Watson’s behaviorism affected student’s life for example, student who are afraid of cockcroach watch his friend being punish to hold a cockcroach due to his wrongdoing so, he was more afraid to the punishment because for him, being punish by hold a cockcroach is a terrible and let him trauma for a longlife.   

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